Oil & Gas Glossary

Analogous Reservoir: Analogous reservoirs, as used in resource assessments, have similar rock and fluid properties, reservoir conditions (depth, temperature, and pressure) and drive mechanisms, but are typically at a more advanced stage of development than the reservoir of interest and thus may provide concepts to assist in the interpretation of more limited data and estimation of recovery. When used to support proved reserves, analogous reservoir refers to a reservoir that shares all of the following characteristics with the reservoir of interest: (i) the same geological formation (but not necessarily in pressure communication with the reservoir of interest); (ii) the same environment of deposition; (iii) similar geologic structure; and (iv) the same drive mechanism.

AOD: Area of dedication, which means the acreage dedicated to a company by an oil and/or natural gas producer under one or more contracts.

ASC: Accounting Standards Codification.

Barrel (Bbl): One barrel of petroleum products equal to 42 U.S. gallons.

Base gas: A quantity of natural gas held within the confines of the natural gas storage facility and used for pressure support and to maintain a minimum facility pressure. May consist of injected base gas or native base gas. Also known as cushion gas.

Basin: A large depression on the earth’s surface in which sediments accumulate.

Bbl: One stock tank barrel, or 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume, used in reference to oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.

Bboe. One billion barrels of oil equivalent.

Bbtu. One billion British thermal units.

Bcf: One billion cubic feet of natural gas. A standard volume measure of natural gas products.

Bcfe: One billion cubic feet of natural gas equivalent.

Boe: One barrel of oil equivalent, calculated by converting natural gas to oil equivalent barrels at a ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one Bbl of oil.

Btu. British thermal unit, which is the heat required to raise the temperature of a one-pound mass of water from 58.5 to 59.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

Commercial Well; Commercially Productive Well. A well which produces oil, natural gas and/or NGL in sufficient quantities such that proceeds from the sale of this production exceeds production expenses and taxes.

Completion. The process of treating a drilled well followed by the installation of permanent equipment for the production of oil, natural gas or NGL, or in the case of a dry well, the reporting to the appropriate authority that the well has been abandoned.

Cycle: A complete withdrawal and injection of working gas. Cycling refers to the process of completing one cycle.

Developed Acreage: The number of acres which are allocated or assignable to producing wells or wells capable of production.

Development Well: A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or natural gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.

Differential: An adjustment to the price of oil or natural gas from an established spot market price to reflect differences in the quality and/or location of oil or natural gas.

Drilling Carry Obligation. An obligation of one party to pay certain well costs attributable to another party.

Dry Well. A well found to be incapable of producing either oil or natural gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or natural gas well.

Dth: One dekatherm of natural gas.

Economically Producible: The term economically producible, as it relates to a resource, means a resource which generates revenue that exceeds, or is reasonably expected to exceed, the costs of the operation. For this determination, the value of the products that generate revenue are determined at the terminal point of oil and natural gas producing activities.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (EUR): Estimated ultimate recovery is the sum of proved reserves remaining as of a given date and cumulative production as of that date.

Exploitation: A development or other project which may target proven or unproven reserves (such as probable or possible reserves), but which generally has a lower risk than that associated with exploration projects.

Exploratory Well: A well drilled to find and produce oil and natural gas reserves not classified as proved, to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or natural gas in another reservoir or to extend a known reservoir.

FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board.

FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

Field: An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs, all grouped on or related to the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition. The field name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the underground productive formations.

Firm service: Services pursuant to which customers receive an assured or firm right to (i) in the context of storage service, store product in the storage facility or (ii) in the context of transportation service, transport product through a pipeline, over a defined period of time.

Formation. A succession of sedimentary beds that were deposited under the same general geologic conditions.

Full Cost Pool. The full cost pool consists of all costs associated with property acquisition, exploration and development activities for a company using the full cost method of accounting. Additionally, any internal costs that can be directly identified with acquisition, exploration and development activities are included. Any costs related to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities are not included.

G&P: Gathering and processing.

GAAP: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

Gas storage capacity: The maximum volume of natural gas that can be cost-effectively injected into a storage facility and extracted during the normal operation of the storage facility. Gas storage capacity excludes base gas.

Gross Acres or Gross Wells. The total acres or wells, as the case may be, in which a working interest is owned.

Henry Hub. Henry Hub is the major exchange for pricing natural gas futures on the NYMEX.

Horizontal Drilling. Drilling at angles greater than 70 degrees from vertical.

Hub services: With respect to our natural gas storage and transportation operations, the following services: (i) interruptible storage services, (ii) firm and interruptible park and loan services, (iii) interruptible wheeling services, and (iv) balancing services.

Hub: Geographic location of a storage facility and multiple pipeline interconnections.

ICE: Inter-Continental Exchange.

Injection rate: The rate at which a customer is permitted to inject natural gas into a natural gas storage facility.

Interruptible service: Services pursuant to which customers receive only limited assurances regarding the availability of (i) with respect to storage services, capacity and deliverability in storage facilities or (ii) with respect to transportation services, capacity and deliverability from receipt points to delivery points. Customers pay fees for interruptible services based on their actual utilization of the storage or transportation assets.

LIBOR: London Interbank Offered Rate.

Mboe. One thousand barrels of oil equivalent.

MBtu/d: One thousand Btu per day.

Mcf: One thousand cubic feet of natural gas.

Mmbbl. One million barrels of crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.

Mmboe. One million barrels of oil equivalent.

Mmbtu. One million btus.

MMbtu: One million British thermal units, which is approximately equal to one Mcf. One British thermal unit is equivalent to an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree.

MMcf: One million cubic feet of natural gas.

MMcf: One million cubic feet of natural gas.

MMcfe: One million cubic feet of natural gas equivalent.

Natural Gas Act: Federal law enacted in 1938 that established the FERC’s authority to regulate interstate pipelines.

Natural Gas Liquids (NGL). Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption or other methods in gas processing or cycling plants. Natural gas liquids primarily include ethane, propane, butane, isobutene, pentane, hexane and natural gasoline.

Natural gas: A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, primarily methane together with varying quantities of ethane, propane, butane and other gases.

Net Acres or Net Wells: Gross acres or wells, as the case may be, multiplied by the working interest ownership percentage.

Net Production: Production that is owned by us less royalties and production due others.

Net Revenue Interest: A working interest owner’s gross working interest in production less the royalty, overriding royalty, production payment and net profits interests.

NYMEX: New York Mercantile Exchange.

NYSE: New York Stock Exchange.

Oil: Oil and condensate.

Operator: The individual or company responsible for the exploration and/or production of an oil or natural gas well or lease.

Play. 1) A term applied to a portion of the exploration and production cycle following the identification by geologists and geophysicists of areas with potential oil, natural gas and NGL reserves. 2) A geographic area with hydrocarbon potential.

Possible Reserves: Reserves that are less certain to be recovered than probable reserves.

Present Value or PV-10. When used with respect to oil, natural gas and NGL reserves, present value, or PV-10, means the estimated future gross revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, net of estimated production and future development costs, using prices calculated as the average oil and natural gas price during the preceding 12-month period prior to the end of the current reporting period, (determined as the unweighted arithmetic average of prices on the first day of each month within the 12-month period) and costs in effect at the determination date, without giving effect to non-property related expenses such as general and administrative expenses, debt service and future income tax expense or to depreciation, depletion and amortization, discounted using an annual discount rate of 10%.

Price Differential. The difference in the price of oil, natural gas or NGL received at the sales point and the NYMEX price.

Probable Reserves: Reserves that are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves but that, together with proved reserves, are as likely as not to be recovered.

Productive Well: A well that produces commercial quantities of hydrocarbons, exclusive of its capacity to produce at a reasonable rate of return. A well that is not a dry well. Productive wells include producing wells and wells that are mechanically capable of production.

Proved Developed Reserves. Proved reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.

Proved Reserves: Those quantities of oil and natural gas, which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible, from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations, prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced, or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project, within a reasonable time. The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes (i) the area identified by drilling and limited by fluid contacts, if any, and (ii) adjacent undrilled portions of the reservoir that can, with reasonable certainty, be judged to be continuous with it and to contain economically producible oil or natural gas on the basis of available geoscience and engineering data. In the absence of data on fluid contacts, proved quantities in a reservoir are limited by the lowest known hydrocarbons, as seen in a well penetration, unless geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower contact with reasonable certainty. Where direct observation from well penetrations has defined a highest known oil elevation and the potential exists for an associated natural gas cap, proved oil reserves may be assigned in the structurally higher portions of the reservoir only if geoscience, engineering, or performance data and reliable technology establish the higher contact with reasonable certainty. Reserves which can be produced economically through application of improved recovery techniques (including fluid injection) are included in the proved classification when (i) successful testing by a pilot project in an area of the reservoir with properties no more favorable than in the reservoir as a whole, the operation of an installed program in the reservoir, or an analogous reservoir or other evidence using reliable technology establishes the reasonable certainty of the engineering analysis on which the project or program was based; and (ii) the project has been approved for development by all necessary parties and entities, including governmental entities. Existing economic conditions include prices and costs at which economic producibility from a reservoir is to be determined. The price used is the average price during the twelve-month period prior to the ending date of the period covered by the report, determined as an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within such period, unless prices are defined by contractual arrangements, excluding escalations based upon future conditions.

Proved Undeveloped Reserves (PUDs): Proved oil and natural gas reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion. Reserves on undrilled acreage are limited to those drilling units offsetting productive units that are reasonably certain of production when drilled. Proved reserves for other undrilled units can be claimed only where it can be demonstrated with certainty that there is continuity of production from the existing productive formation. Under no circumstances should estimates for proved undeveloped reserves be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual tests in the area and in the same reservoir.

Realized and Unrealized Gains and Losses on Oil, Natural Gas and NGL Derivatives. Realized gains and losses includes the following items:(i) settlements of non-designated derivatives related to current period production revenues, (ii) prior period settlements for option premiums and for early-terminated derivatives originally scheduled to settle against current period production revenues, and (iii) gains and losses related to de-designated cash flow hedges originally designated to settle against current period production revenues. Unrealized gains and losses include the change in fair value of open derivatives scheduled to settle against future period production revenues offset by amounts reclassified as realized gains and losses during the period. Although we no longer designate our derivatives as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes, we believe these definitions are useful to management and investors in determining the effectiveness of our price risk management program.

Realized Price: The cash market price less all expected quality, transportation and demand adjustments.

Recompletion: The completion for production of an existing wellbore in another formation from that which the well has been previously completed.

Reliable Technology: Reliable technology is a grouping of one or more technologies (including computational methods) that has been field tested and has been demonstrated to provide reasonably certain results with consistency and repeatability in the formation being evaluated or in an analogous formation.

Reserve Life: A measure of the productive life of an oil and natural gas property or a group of properties, expressed in years. Reserve life is calculated by dividing proved reserve volumes at year-end by production volumes. In our calculation of reserve life, production volumes are adjusted, if necessary, to reflect property acquisitions and dispositions.

Reserves: Reserves are estimated remaining quantities of oil and natural gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in the production, installed means of delivering oil and natural gas or related substances to market and all permits and financing required to implement the project. Reserves should not be assigned to adjacent reservoirs isolated by major, potentially sealing, faults until those reservoirs are penetrated and evaluated as economically producible. Reserves should not be assigned to areas that are clearly separated from a known accumulation by a non-productive reservoir (i.e., absence of reservoir, structurally low reservoir or negative test results). Such areas may contain prospective resources (i.e., potentially recoverable resources from undiscovered accumulations).

Reservoir: A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible oil and/or natural gas that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is individual and separate from other reserves.

Resources: Resources are quantities of oil and natural gas estimated to exist in naturally occurring accumulations. A portion of the resources may be estimated to be recoverable and another portion may be considered unrecoverable. Resources include both discovered and undiscovered accumulations.

Royalty Interest. An interest in an oil and natural gas property entitling the owner to a share of oil, natural gas or NGL production free of costs of production.

Salt cavern: A man-made cavern developed in a salt dome or salt beds by leaching or mining of the salt.

SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission.

Seismic. An exploration method of sending energy waves or sound waves into the earth and recording the wave reflections to indicate the type, size, shape and depth of subsurface rock formation (3-D seismic provides three-dimensional pictures).

Shale. Fine-grained sedimentary rock composed mostly of consolidated clay or mud. Shale is the most frequently occurring sedimentary rock.

Spacing: The distance between wells producing from the same reservoir. Spacing is often expressed in terms of acres (e.g., 40-acre spacing) and is often established by regulatory agencies.

Standardized Measure: The present value of estimated future net revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, determined in accordance with the rules, regulations or standards established by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) (using prices and costs in effect as of the date of estimation), less future development, production and income tax expenses, and discounted at 10% per annum to reflect the timing of future net revenue. Because we are a corporation, we are subject to federal or state income taxes and thus make provision for federal or state income taxes in the calculation of our standardized measure. Standardized measure does not give effect to derivative transactions.

Tbtu. One trillion British thermal units.

Undeveloped Acreage: Lease acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of commercial quantities of oil and natural gas regardless of whether such acreage contains proved reserves.

Unproved Properties. Properties with no proved reserves.

Volumetric Production Payment (VPP). As we use the term, a volumetric production payment represents a limited-term overriding royalty interest in oil and natural gas reserves that: (i) entitles the purchaser to receive scheduled production volumes over a period of time from specific lease interests; (ii) is free and clear of all associated future production costs and capital expenditures; (iii) is nonrecourse to the seller (i.e., the purchaser’s only recourse is to the reserves acquired); (iv) transfers title of the reserves to the purchaser; and (v) allows the seller to retain the remaining reserves, if any, after the scheduled production volumes have been delivered.

Wellbore: The hole drilled by the bit that is equipped for oil or natural gas production on a completed well. Also called well or borehole.

West Texas Intermediate (WTI). A grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.

Wheeling: The transportation of natural gas from one pipeline to another pipeline through the pipeline facilities of a natural gas storage facility. The gas does not flow into or out of actual storage, but merely uses the surface facilities of the storage operation.

Withdrawal rate: The rate at which a customer is permitted to withdraw gas from a natural gas storage facility.

Working gas: Natural gas in a storage facility in excess of base gas. Working gas may or may not be completely withdrawn during any particular withdrawal season.

Working Interest: An interest in an oil and natural gas lease that gives the owner of the interest the right to drill for and produce oil and natural gas on the leased acreage and requires the owner to pay a share of the costs of drilling and production operations.

WTI: West Texas Intermediate.

Source: SEC Filings